Divine Council: Various Quotes

Here are some interesting quotes about the divine council that I collected a while back and that I’d like to post here for safekeeping. I collected these from various discussions that LDS scholar David Bokovoy was having with Evangelical critics on a message board….so thanks to David for these. I have more extensive divine council quotes by other authors elsewhere (see the “Divine Council” section of this blog) but I’m starting this post as a place to keep snippets like these. Hopefully this post will grow as I learn more. If you have any feel free to share them!

“[The divine council of deities] is a fundamental symbol for the Old Testament understanding of how the government of human society by the divine world is carried out” “Cosmology and World Order.” Patrick D. Miller, in Israelite Religion and Biblical Theology: Collected Essays (JSOTSup 267; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000), 422–432.

“What did it mean, in ancient time, to ‘believe’ in one god? Such belief did not entail doubting the existence of other gods.” Paula Fredriksen, “Gods and the One God: In Antiquity all Monotheists were Polytheists,” published in Bible Review, Feb. 2007, pg. 12

“The Bible calls the assembled beings the ‘host of heaven,’ it is widely understood [however] that these were the gods who made up the heavenly court in Judah and Israel.” Lowell K. Handy, Among the Host of Heaven: The Syro-Palestinian Pantheon as Bureaucracy (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994), 120.

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2 comments on “Divine Council: Various Quotes

  1. Stan J. says:


    Thanks for sharing these. I’ve been working with one of my old professors on a few things, and our research has really been examining issues pertaining to “the Divine Council,” particularly in relation to temple worship, both ancient and modern.

    I appreciate this consolidated source of references.

  2. James says:

    I’m glad this was useful to you. Make sure you check out the rest of my posts that deal with the Divine Council, and with God in the OT in general.


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