Divine Council

These are articles that discuss the concept of the Divine Council of gods as the undergirding framework of the Old Testament and other scriptures.

A Moral Definition of Monotheism

Bart Ehrman on 2nd Temple Monotheism

Divine Council: Various Quotes

2nd Temple Jewish Monotheism: Larry Hurtado Part 2

2nd Temple Jewish Monotheism: Larry Hurtado

NOVA videos: Asherah & Solomon’s Temple

Divine Council in Bible + “Image of God”: Two Essays by Alan Hooker

Psalm 82: Not “Judges”

Targum Psalm 82, not reliable

Mark Smith: “Monotheism” not an Ancient Israelite Concept

Mark Smith: Yahweh as El’s Son & Yahweh’s Ascendancy

Heiser: “No other God beside me” , statement of incomparibility

Yahweh as “species unique”: Bokovoy vs Heiser

Divine Council in Isaiah 40: Frank M. Cross

Psalm 82 in light of John 10 (How does Jesus use it?)

Mark Smith: Excerpts from “Origins of Biblical Monotheism”

John Day: Yahweh & El, distinct gods & the Divine Council

El & Yahweh in Ancient Israel:  Some resources

Figurine of El, Canaanite God

Joseph and the Divine Council

The “gods” in Psalm 86

Raphael Patai on Monotheism, Asherah, and more